The Special Theory of Relativity
A Layman is hardly interested in knowing the Einstein’s saga of “space” and “time”. A learned man wants to learn about it, but often gets disappointed after reading as “space-time” makes no sense. A philosopher wants to go where nobody has gone. Though there is hardly anything significant to understand about “space and time” since they are mere imponderables, yet philosophers in past took them as a challenge and created all non -sense about them. Some scientists cleverly selected some parts of this non sense and attempted to transform them into a reality by creating some theories, more or less, similar to relativity.
What is space? For some Dr. Fish, water, that separates two objects and fills around them in the sea, is space. For human beings, the emptiness, that separates the two objects, is space. For a quantum mechanic, space is nothing which creates virtual articles. For Einstein, space is something that gets distorted by presence of matter like a cosmic tent which gets distorted by the breeze causing him a sleepless night to think the phenomenon as gravity or for him, space is like a cosmic blanket that gets curvatures by presence of matter in the same manner a rat creates them while moving beneath a blanket and thus, be the sole cause of manifestation of gravity.
In fact, space and time are imponderables as they are the most perplexing and amusing mysteries of universe that drive us nuts. We never find the answers because we don't know where to look. Proving space- time is like you have no life - and you can PROVE it mathematically.
In science, the most erroneous theories are those physicists think they know best -- and therefore never scrutinize or question, moreover, they suppress the contradictory evidence that refutes the theory. Theories like the relativity compel us to think that Science is the most systematic fun-folly continuum about the nature of the world. In fact, time is nothing. If space and time are nothing, what is there to prove about space-time? The book 'There is No Time’, authored by John Peck attempts to find out "the state of knowledge that was current at the time Einstein published the Theory of Special Relativity in 1905. Research for the book revealed that there were substantial errors in scientific thinking at that time. Unwittingly, Einstein adopted these errors in formulating his famous Theory of Special Relativity with the consequence that the Special Theory of Relativity is false" that has left physics in the state of crisis. Einstein and the rest of the followers of special theory of relativity should not be taken seriously because they fail to see the gravity of the situation why the progress of physics has halted.
It appears that while making the theory of relativity, Einstein’s speed of thought was faster- than- light. "The faster- than- light" problem reminds me a lady Bright:
"There was a young lady called Bright
who could travel much faster than light.
She departed one day
in a relative way
and returned on the previous night"-
-Charlie Cerf and Peter Thorp
In 1905, Albert Einstein published the special theory of relativity, which explains how to interpret motion between different inertial frames of reference — that is, places that are moving at constant speeds relative to each other. In his Special theory of the relativity Einstein provided "inertial reference frame" almost a status of personal god. I mean, he elevated the complete equivalence of all inertial reference frames to the status of an axiom or principle, for which he provided neither sound explanation nor any proof. On the contrary, it explains the failure of all the Michelson Morley experiments in the similar manner the principle of conservation of energy erroneously explains a priori (i.e. without the need for a detailed examination of the mechanism) the failure of all attempts to construct perpetual motion machines in the past as well as future.
Today Students are exposed to in our college years that the Special theory of relativity is the product of Einstein’s genius, his fresh and unique perspective on space and time. However, reality is different. Poincaré was the real pioneer in taking the bold step of advocating the importance of formulating a general principle embracing all physical laws. The British writer Edmund Whittaker held the opinion that Einstein’s role in formulating the special theory of relativity was limited to elaborating on the theoretical insights of others like Poincaré and Lorentz. He suggested that Einstein had little to contribute in terms of original ideas in this field. Undoubtedly, Poincaré was the first one to put forward a general principle embracing all physical laws. Einstein only gave up ether and finally constructed a fully relativistic theory.
In the latter part of the 19th century, physicists as well as perpetual motionists were searching for the mysterious thing called ether. While perpetual motionists believed that they can extract indefinite amount of energy from the ether, physicists had only theoretical interests. Physicists believed that ether was the medium they believed existed for light waves to wave through. Einstein came on the scene to mess everything. He decided to eliminate ether so that there would be no problem to study different laws of physics that would need to be verified, hence his laws would perpetuate in the history of physics.
"Na rahega Baans na bajegi bansuri"(we say in Hindi)
"Without the Bamboo, the flute can never be played”, therefore, Einstein eliminated the ether to develop his Special theory of relativity, however, he accommodated ether in his General theory of relativity.
This is Einstein's art of fitting facts to theory. He said: "If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts."
However, Einstein possessed sophistication of arguing to justify the elimination of the ether. He had sophistication of accepting or denying the influence of Michelson-Morley experiment on the development of his special theory of relativity. Einstein’s argued that introducing a medium caused certain laws of physics to work differently depending on how the observer moved relative to the ether. Einstein just removed the ether entirely and assumed that the laws of physics, including the speed of light, worked the same regardless of how you were moving — precisely as experiments and mathematics manipulated them to be!He preached that it is the movement with respect to the position of the observer that determines laws of physics. He forgot that everything in the Universe is in the state of perpetual motion regardless of the fact whether observer moves or at rest. So when you begin from very start an erroneous notion of rest and motion, you cannot arrive at the absolute truth. In in ultimate sense, perpetual motion is absolute, things we see at rest arise out of our illusion. Cyclical perpetual motion in which everything -time, space, position of observer, relative rest and motion are tied to the "absolute centre" presents "absolute" relationship to the changeless, eternal ultimate reality that we call by different names: "Brahma," "Void", or God etc. There is the difference between how the world appears to us because of our limited sense of perception and how the world has its own objective reality independent of subjective element that is bound to arise in our puny attempts of comprehension of the world. Scientist have failed to understand even the terrestrial man made perpetual motion, it is next to impossible that they can ever arrive at profundity of cosmic perpetual motion and its ultimate source. Gravity Wheel is the real experiment, real demonstration aimed and tied to the search of the truth about the ultimate source of energy regardless of relativity that can reestablish the importance of concept of ether that has lost its importance in the wrong practice, theory and history of physics.
The famous Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887, though designed to establish the velocity of the earth with respect to the luminiferous ether, failed to find any velocity. Such problems interested a great band of physicists at the turn of 19th century.
Albert Einstein, had knowledge of the Michelson-Morley experiment prior to 1905 which was evident from his love letters to Mileva between 1898 and 1902.and his lecture in Chicago in 1921. Ether drift experiments were an important basis in the complex of ideas that eventually led to the special theory. Einstein's Special relativity principle directly demonstrates complete acceptance of the null results of all the ether-drift experiments. Einstein failed to look for special explanations of those results, instead used them as the empirical evidence for a new principle of nature, Einstein had turned the tables: strange predictions could be made.
But Einstein denied influence of the experiment in the style of a priest, however, he accepted the influence in his later publications.He stated:
“In my own development Michelson’s result has not had a considerable influence. I even do not remember if I knew of it at all when I wrote my first paper on the subject (1905). The explanation is that I was, for general reasons, firmly convinced that there does not exist absolute motion and my problem was only how this could be reconciled with our knowledge of electro-dynamics. One can therefore understand why in my personal struggle Michelson’s experiment played no role or at least no decisive role.”
Einstein only referred to the experiment, mentioned when he came upon it, and hinted at its influence. Arguments are presented to explain the contrast with Einstein’s later pronouncements on the role of the experiment.
In the following statement, Einstein accepted influence of Michelson’s experiment:
“This idea was of the same sort as that of Michelson’s experiment, but I did not know this experiment very well then.” Yet, his ignorance would not last long: “While I had these ideas in mind as a student, I came to know the strange result of the Michelson experiment. Then I came to realize intuitively that, if we admit this as a fact, it must be our mistake to think of the movement of the earth against the ether. That was the first route that led me to what we now call the principle of special relativity.”
Above passage suggests that the Michelson-Morley experiment did, after all, influenced Einstein in a direct way, and was relevant in the construction of the theory.
Poincaré and Lorentz had already postulated theories of relativity, but Einstein’s became the most clever person by formulating his weird theory of relativity that would require the minimum of both experimental evidence and mathematics. Einstein knew little mathematics at the time he brought out his special theory. Poincaré rightly acknowledged importance of the ether and he was not ready to take the important step to eliminate the ether. He found that important concept of ether was in conflict with the spirit of the principle of relativity which is supposed to treat all frames on an equal footing. Poincaré was also perplexed by the nature of gravity as he found the fact that gravitational phenomena were inconsistent.
Imagination is Equal to Reality
The Einstein’s Method of Special Theory of Relativity
"When I examined myself and my methods of thought, I came to the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing positive knowledge."
-- A. Einstein
If you want to find out anything from the Einstein about the methods he used for the Special theory of the relativity, you must not listen to the words of the Einstein but fix your attention on his deeds. This was suggested by Einstein himself. While creating his Special theory of the relativity, Einstein was so much intoxicated with his “cosmic religious feelings” and indulged so much in his weird imaginations that he failed to distinguish between the “imagination” and “reality”. Moreover, instead of realizing his error, he advocated inclusion of such a method and expected others to consider his “productions of imagination” not “as the creation of thoughts” but as “given realities.” He argued that doing so was natural and necessary for a physicist while he creates a theory.
Albert Einstein stated: “If you want to find out anything from the theoretical physicists about the methods they use, I advise you to stick closely to one principle: don't listen to their words, fix your attention on their deeds. To him who is a discoverer in this field the products of his imagination appear so necessary and natural that he regards them, and would like to have them regarded by others, not as creations of thought but as given realities.”
Therefore, while dealing with the postulates of special theory of relativity, we must consider his postulates as mere “productions of imagination”, however, if you are the follower of the Einstein, you must not regard them “as creation of the thoughts” but as “given realities”.
In the light of the discussion given above and also presented under the title " Einstein's Folly of Imagination Vs Reality" in more details, in the side bar on this web page, it is obvious that Einstein’s Special theory is based on the two erroneous postulates:
The principle of relativity:
The laws of physics don’t change, even for objects moving in inertial (constant speed) frames of reference. absolute motion and absolute rest could not be detected by any experiment.
The principle of the speed of light: The speed of light is the same for all observers, regardless of their motion relative to the light source. (Physicists write this speed using the symbol c.)
Einstein then showed that the position and time of an event could only be established relative to an arbitrarily chosen frame of reference. After that Einstein drew some strange mythology to puzzle the intelligence of the rest of physics that put rest of the citizens of the world under wonder and awe. Science fiction writers and story tellers found a real messiah in the Einstein.
Einstein found that as the speed of an object increases, relative to the observer, its length decreases and it gains mass.
As the speed increases, time slows down. This so-called time dilation was illustrated by a tale of twins.
Clock Paradox: Twin Bacteria
If all the arteries, veins, & capillaries in the human body were placed end to end, the total length would be more than 100,000 km. In a big Dinosaur it could reach to 100000000 kms. Let us apply the Special theory of relativity to twin bacteria situated in some region of particular capillary of the Dinosaur. According to the Special theory of relativity, one of the bacteria, with velocity of light, if take travel to the total length of capillaries in Dinosaur and if return to the stationary bacteria, he would be younger as compared to the stationary bacteria. But we have common sense here to believe that our Dinosaur will remain unaffected by the relativistic effects even if shown by the Special theory of relativity as stated above.
While Einstein is studying the relativistic effects on the twin bacteria, in fact, he is sitting in his little Universe; therefore, it would be a blunder if he extrapolates his results to apply to the whole Universe. Professor Bridgman emphasized the dangers of long-range scientific extrapolation in his beautiful Gibbs memorial lecture, and these dangers, as we have seen, has been most rampant in founding the law of conservation of energy, and other laws of thermodynamics based on the so called impossibility of perpetual motion of first kind, and second and third kind, respectively. These dangers are also frequent in cosmological speculations, based on the observation of a small fragment of the total universe for an inappreciable time span. Einstein has big brain but he is not free from his tunnel vision.
In his article entitled “Einstein and Modern Physics, N. Martin Gwynne states:
“For the sake of completeness, I must make it clear that physicists do often admit, and even affirm, that they know that they are not talking about reality and that particles and waves do not exist; for in theory modern physics is less concerned with reality than with constructing models which enable them to make predictions. It need hardly be pointed out that basing science on models which are admittedly unreal is outrageously unsound philosophically, and also that to forget that they are unreal is a temptation that is both easy to fall into and most certainly fallen into in practice. This is not an unsupported assert-ion that I have invented. Professor Herbert Dingle, whom I shall quote often in this chapter, and who against any yardstick must be acknowledged as a leading authority, wrote in a discussion of this very subject in his book Science at the Crossroads (p.143) : “It is impossible to believe that men with this intelligence to achieve the near miracles of modern technology could be so stupid as to fall into (such an) elementary error had they not, through long familiarity with the words, unconsciously come to believe that mass, time, distance and such terms mean the same for hypothetical particles as for the world of the senses. Physicists have forgotten that their language is metaphorical, and interpret the language literally.” (Emphasis added by the author)
Regarding heat, in the first place, the classical thermodynamics describes the systems which are at rest with respect to the observer, and there is no significant investigation into the treatment of thermodynamic systems which are moving relative to the spatial coordinates in use.
Moreover, heat is nothing but agitation of the particles; it is a form of disordered perpetual motion at the microcosmic level. Relativistic effects have nothing to do with it. When you apply heat to some system, the space between the particles increases, Special theory of relativity which claims to solve mystery of time-space cannot explain this phenomenon of heat and space.
According to the Special theory of relativity, moving at the approximate velocity of the light, the length of the rod shrinks because of the increase in the kinetic energy. Contrary to it, in our studies of phenomena of heat, we do not require rod to travel at the velocity of the light. We can just heat up the rod to see that it elongates with increased kinetic energy and if we want to contract the rod, we can do it by reducing the temperature. These observations are contrary to the tenets of the Special theory of the relativity.
Heat flows from higher to low temperature regardless of relativistic effects. Our solar system is moving at the staggering rate, still, it can be an interesting investigation whether at the speed of the light, the rate of flow of heat from the Sun would get affected by the relativistic effect or not.
Let us imagine two astronomers, one in India and other in USA. They study solar spots on the surface of the Sun. Do the positions of these two astronomers, moving along the earth and around the Sun at the velocity of light make any difference to the flow of heat from Sun due to relativistic effects? Do relativistic effects influence their observations of Sun spots in any significant manner? If we use Einstein's frame of reference of velocity of light, the fact is that astronomers observe the exactly at a certain point on the horizon the same sun is not moving at that particular moment in the galaxy. Instead astronomers see only see the sun as the image of the event that occurred in the galaxy 8.1/3 minutes earlier which is the same time taken by the sun's ray to cross a distance of 93 million miles from the sun to the earth. Obviously if the sun immediately vanishes, the astronomers on the earth will observe the sun spots 8.1/3 minutes more till the complete darkness engulfs them.
To sum up, Special theory of relativity does not apply to the phenomena of gravity and also to the phenomena of heat, therefore, it does not apply to perpetual motion which is largely governed by gravity (ordered perpetual motion) at macro-cosmic level and Heat (disordered perpetual motion) at macroscopic level. Our Grand cycle of perpetual motion which consists of periodic creation, sustenance and dissolution of the universe and its phases of expansion and contraction are largely governed by the force of gravity and heat; and sustenance is largely governed by electromagnetic force. Expansion and contraction of the cycle of perpetual motion is free from relativistic effects because special theory of the relativity does not apply to the cycle as "whole" as well as phenomena of gravity and heat as we have already stated.
In the Grand cycle of perpetual motionThe Grand cycle of perpetual motion is a direct manifestation of the “Absolute”. The whole universe is without a frame of reference, it is ultimately connected to a single frame-less “Absolute”, Omnipresent and Omnipotent which is beyond relativity and any frame of reference. We can name "the Absolute" as God also.
The relativity theory tells us that different observers will see the same events occurring in different temporal sequences according to their respective position and velocities relative to the observed facts. So there cannot be one moment which can be universal ‘now'.
It should be noted that when the Grand Cycle of perpetual motion started or universe began, no observer existed except God. Today when we have come to exist, the same instant may differ from individual to individual today, but it does not differ to God. Two events may appear simultaneously to an observer at rest but not necessarily so to one who is in motion. But when God observes, not only the two events but innumerable, infinite events, appear to Him as distinct as they are in actuality, regardless of His position because God is present everywhere. In God’s kingdom and His observation, we can say that the time interval between two events remain unaffected by the relative motion of the events as well as the position of the God who is the greatest observer because He is capable of looking the Universe as a whole. Coming close to the Special theory of relativity, it is a fact that because of the veil of Maya, the people and things they see and feel around are mere shadows of some real existence or events that occurred at some time earlier. But we know that "Maya" is not the ultimate reality.